Twelve Months- Twelve Lords

Month 10

This is known as Narayana Masa/Pushya masa and is equivalent to December-January month in the English calendar.

This month gets it’s name from the Pushyami star or Nakshatra when it coincides with the full moon day of the month and is known as Pushya Masa. Pushya masa is also known as Pousha masa and is the 10th month of the Lunar Calendar. The Sun transits partly in Dhanus Rasi (Sagittarius) and partly in Makara rasi (Capricorn). The day the sun enters Makara Rasi that day is celebrated as Makara Sankranthi or Makara Sankramana.  Plenty of religious and spiritual significance is attached to this day as it marks the beginning of the Sun’s travel in the Northern direction and this is known as Uttarayana as per South Indian calendar. 

Lord Sriman Narayana is the presiding Lord or the Masa Niyamaka and governs this month. The Lord as Narayana is all pervasive, eternal and is beyond all boundaries and He has no limit either by space, time or location. The Lord has infinite forms and He dwells in this entire Universe. He is invincible and is omnipresent. His glory is infinite. He is highly meritorious among the meritorious.

Narayana is the conjunction of the words – Nara + Yana where Nara means water and Yana means lives. So, Narayana means the one who lives in water.  Before this Universe was created, there was only water everywhere. The Lord as Narayana was present in the very beginning, before anything else. He is the cause and source of the origin and the end of the world. The Lord is that energy who can manifest Himself and expand Himself and He is never diminished. He is the Supreme God who outshines all.

He is the life giver and is the vital air that sustains life of all beings which includes even the demigods or devathas. Narayana is the ultimate salvation and He directs the humans towards this objective. He is the purifier and giver of plenty and delights everyone’s heart. He has the capacity to burn away all sins and is the slayer of Arishadvargas or the enemies. The Narayana Upanishad describes Him as ‘eko nārāyaṇaḥ Na dvitīyo’sti kaścit’. There is only one Narayana – the supreme Lord and He is the Adipurusha and there is no one superior to Him and He is second to none.  He is Adviteeya and is the ultimate truth and the ultimate divine power. Goddess Lakshmi Devi is His divine consort who is eternally present within His Vakshasthala (chest) and they are inseparable. Together they are called Lakshmi Narayana.

The Vishnu Sahasranama also refers to Sriman Narayana.

Vanamaali Gadi Shaarngi Shankhi Chakri ca Nandaki |
Srimaan Narayano Vishnur Vasudevo Abhirakshatu || 108||
            | Sri Vasudevo’bhirakshatu Om Nama Iti |

It is stated in the Narayana Upanishad (1): “atha puruso ha vai narayano ‘kamayata prajah srjeyeti: ‘Then the Supreme Personality Narayana desired to create living entities.’  The Narayana Upanishad further mentions that “narayanad brahma jayate, narayanad prajapatih prajayate, narayanad indro jayate, narayanad astau vasavo jayante, narayanad ekadasa rudra jayante, narayanad dvadasadityah” – ‘From Narayana, Brahma is born, and from Narayana the patriarchs are also born. From Narayana, Indra is born, from Narayana the eight Vasus are born, from Narayana the eleven Rudras are born, from Narayana the twelve Adityas are born.’ This Narayana is an expansion of Krishna.”

Narayana Upanishad (4) states: “brahmanyo devaki-putrah: ‘The son of Devaki, Krishna, is the Supreme Personality.’ It also then says, eko vai narayana asin na brahma na isano napo nagni-somau neme dyav-aprthivi na naksatrani na suryah: ‘In the beginning of the creation there was only the Supreme Personality Narayana. There was no Brahma, no Shiva, no water, no fire, no moon, no heaven and earth, no stars in the sky, no sun.'”

“narayanah paro devas tasmaj jatas caturmukhah

tasmad rudro ‘bhavad devahsa ca sarva-jnatam gatah

  • Varaha Purama

‘Narayana is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and from Him Brahma was born, from whom Siva was born.'”

ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṁ budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ

  • Bhagavad-gita, 10.8:

“I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts.”

The Sun god traverses this Tenth month with his associates by entering the Tenth zodiac sign – Makara or Capricorn and is known as;

Bhaga as the sun-god,  Sphurja as the Raksasa, Aristanemi as the Gandharva, Uma as the Yaksa, Ayur as the sage, Karkotaka as the Naga and Purvacitti as the Apsara rule the month of Pusya.

Festivals in the month

Paush Amavasya: Pushya Amavasya is the no -moon or new-moon day of the Pausha masa. This day is ideal for performing Shraddha for ancestors.

Paush month has another name – Sowbhagya Lakshmi Masa. Worshipping Mahalakshmi during this month provides immense benefits.

Since Paush month leads on to the harvest season, Hindus also worship two more aspects of Mahalakshmi during this period. These are Dhanalakshmi (Goddess of Wealth), and Dhanya Lakshmi (Goddess of Crops/Food Grains).

Banada Ashtami: Pausha Navratri or Shakambari Navratri begins on this day, the eighth day of the waxing phase or Shukla paksha. This event celebrates Devi Shakambari, an incarnation of Devi Bhagwati.

Shakambari Purnima or Pausha Purnima: Full Moon Day In Paush month is extremely auspicious. Paush Purnima or the full moon day of the Paush month is very auspicious. It marks the beginning of the Magha month austerities..

Sapahala Ekadashi: Saphala Ekadashi or Pushya Krishna Paksha Ekadashi is the eleventh day of the Krishna Paksha or the waning phase of the moon. All Ekadasis are days to worship Lord Vishnu. Saphala is a Sanskrit word that means success, fruitful.

Putrada Ekadashi or Vaikunta Ekadashi: Pausha Shukla Ekadashi is the eleventh day or Ekadasi of Shukla Paksha – the waxing phase of the moon in Paush month.

Festivals at Holy Dhams

At Puri Jagannath

Pusyabhiseka: It is held on Pousa Purnami Tithi i.e. the full moon day of Pousa (DecemberJanuary). On this occasion, abhiseka of the deities is performed. It is also known as Ramabhiseka.

Makara Sankranti: This festival falls in the month of Pousa (December-January). On the Makara Sankranti day, Jagannath Mahaprabhu wears Makara-chula (a sort of head-gear). The previous day, the rice is consecrated (adhibasa) and on the festive day, coconut, clarified butter and different spices are mixed with the said rice to prepare a dish known as Makara chaula. This food is offered to the deities as bhoga. This Makara chaula is taken around the Temple in a procession, which is called Makara bedha.

At Dwarka

Posh: The sun will change its sign from Sagittarius and will enter into Capricorn on 14th January which is celebrates a Makar – Sankranti in the temple.


Krishna Paksha – Chaturthi – Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura – Disappearance

Krishna Paksha – Ekadashi – Saphala Ekadashi , Sri Devananda Pandita – Disappearance

Krishna Paksha – Trayodashi – Sri Mahesa Pandita – Disappearance,  Sri Uddharana Datta Thakura – Disappearance

Shukla Paksha / Gaur Paksha – Padya/Pratipat – Sri Locana Dasa Thakura – Appearance

Shukla Paksha / Gaur Paksha – Chaturthi – Srila Jiva Gosvami – Disappearance, Sri Jagadisa Pandita — Disappearance

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